Language: English

Old Etrandish
Extinction: evolved into Middle Etrandish around 0 BEKE/AEKE
Language family: Torgyrian
   Old Etrandish 
Writing system: Runic

Template:Infobox Language/IPA notice

Old Etrandish was the stage of the Etrandish language between 800 BEKE and 0 BEKE/AEKE. It is important to note that neither Old Etrandish nor its successor Middle Etrandish were in no way a unified monolithic languages, but both had a variety of dialects.

Evolution from Proto-Human Edit

Consonants Edit

  • Proto-Human word-final /z/ became silent.
  • Rhotacism of Proto-Human /z/ to [ɹ] or [r̝].
  • Deaffication of Proto-Human /t͡s/ and /d͡z/ to /s/ and /z/
  • Palatalization of /k ɣ g/ to [t͡ʃ ʝ d͡ʒ] before and after front vowels. This also blocked the word-initial hardening of /ɣe/ and /ɣi/ to [ge] and [gi], which became [ʝe] and [ʝi] instead. /nɣi/ and /nɣe/ (previously pronunced as [ŋgi] and [ŋge]) were palatalized to [nd͡ʒi] and [nd͡ʒe]. Word-initial /dʒ/ later also apeared from Wood Elven loanwords.
  • The voiced velar fricative /ɣ/ hardened to [g] word-initially, unless it was preceeding a front vowel, when it became a palatal fricative [ʝ] instead.
  • Complete shift of /sk/ to /ʃ/ in all environments.
  • Shift of /x/ to /h/, /xʷ/ to /ʍ/
  • Shift of /ɸ/ and /β/ to /f/

Vowels Edit

  • Monophthongization:
    • /ɑi̯/ -> /ɑː/
    • /ɑu̯/ -> /oː/
    • /eu̯/ -> /øː/
    • /iu̯ ui̯/ -> /yː/
  • Proto-Human lax vowels [ɪ ʊ] lowered to /e o/ unless the following syllable had a corresponding non-lax vowel in it. For example, [sʊŋg] became /soŋg/, but [sʊngu] became /suŋgu/ (and eventually /suŋg/, because of the loss of word-final short vowels mentioned below)
  • Proto-Human /ɔː ɛː/ shifted to /oː æː/.
  • I-Umlaut: /o oː u uː/ fronted to /ø øː y yː/ if the following syllable had /i/ in it. The /i/ was then deleted.
  • U-umlaut: /e eː i iː/ rounded to /ø øː y yː/ if the following syllable had /u/ in it. The /u/ was then deleted.
  • A-Umlaut: /i iː y yː u uː/ lowered to /e eː ø øː o oː/ if the following syllable had /ɑ/. The /ɑ/ was then deleted.
  • A-fronting: /ɑ ɑː/ universally fronts to /æ æː/, unless it was /ɑː/ originating from Proto-Human /ɑi̯/, or the following syllable has a back vowel (/ɑ/ excluded). This shift happened after the A-Umlaut took place, as it did not block the umlaut.
  • Loss of word-final short vowels, shortening of word-final long vowels.

Consonants Edit

Labial Dental Palatal Velar Glottal
Plain Sibilant Plain Labialized
Nasal Voiceless
Voiced m n (ŋ) (ŋʷ)
Stop Voiceless p t t͡ʃ k
Voiced b d d͡ʒ g
Fricative Voiceless f~v θ~ð s ʃ (ç) (x)
Voiced z ɣ~ʝ*
Approximant Voiceless ʍ h~ɦ
Voiced l j (lʲ~ʎ*) w
Trill Voiceless
Voiced r, r̝~ɹ* (rʲ*)
  • The existence of the palatal lateral /lʲ~ʎ/ and palatal rhotic /rʲ/ is questionable, and if they existed, they most likely existed only in the syllabic position (see below).
  • The Proto-Human /z/ was rhotacized in Old Etrandish. We do not know how the successor of /z/ was pronunced - either as an alveolar approximant [ɹ] or fricative trill [r̝] - but we do know that it was kept distinct from /r/ until 550 BEKE, when it finally merged with /r/.
  • The phoneme /h/ had a wide range of allophones - voiceless glottal approximant [h] word-initially, voiced glottal approximant [ɦ] between vowels, velar fricative [x] in syllable coda after back vowels, palatal fricative [ç] in syllable coda after front vowels.
  • The voiced velar fricative /ɣ/ had the palatal approximant [ʝ] early on before and after front vowels. Around 400 BEKE, [ʝ] merged with /j/ and [ɣ] with /w/, reintroducing diphthongs to native Etrandish vocabulary.
  • The voiced [v ð] were the medial allophones of /f θ/. /z/ was different, considering how it came from the deaffrication of the proto-Human /d͡z/ (the original proto-Human /z/ rhotacised to [ɹ] or [r̝], and eventually merged with /r/).
  • The voiceless sonorants [m̥ n̥ l̥ r̥ ʍ] were the allophones of /m n l r w/ after /h/. The Old Etrandish /hm hn hl hr hw/ clusters originated from the proto-Human /xm xn xl xr xʷ/.
  • The consonants /l r/ had velarized allophones [ɫ ɹ] before other consonants, but not word-finally or next to each other :the /rl lr/ clusters were realized as [rl lr], not as [ɹl ɫ]. Syllabic /l̩ r̩/ were never velarized, in fact, they may have been even palatalized [l̩ʲ r̩ʲ] or [ʎ̩ r̩ʲ], evidenced by their word-initial dissimilation to /li ri/ in Middle Etrandish.

Syllabic Consonants Edit

With the phonemization of umlauts - caused by the lost vowels - and the rhotacism of proto-Human /z/ to /r/, Old Etrandish acquired syllabic consonants, namely /m̩ n̩ l̩ r̩/ and later /ŋ̩/ too (Late Old Etrandish was already in the process of coalscing /ng/ into /ŋ/, /n̩g/ to /ŋ̩/).

The syllabic /l̩ r̩/ may or may not have been palatalized [l̩ʲ r̩ʲ] or [ʎ̩ r̩ʲ], speculated because of their word-initial dissimilation to /li ri/ in Middle Etrandish. Some linguists believe that syllabic /n̩/ was also a palatalized [n̩ʲ] or [ɲ̩], based on the fact that it dissimilated to /ɛn/ in Middle Etrandish, as opposed to the /um ɔŋ/ from /m̩ ŋ̩/. Other linguists believe that the syllabic /n̩/ originally dissimilated to /ən/, then /ə/ became /ɛ/ everywhere except before /r/, leaving /ɛn/ as the final result.

Vowels Edit

Monophthongs Edit

Front Back
Unrounded Rounded
Close Long
Short i y u
Mid Long øː
Short e ø o
Back Long æː* ɑː
Short æ ɑ

Around 150 BEKE, /æː/ diphthongized to /æi̯/ in the majority of Old Etrandish dialects.

Diphthongs Edit

Around 400 BEKE, the early Old Etrandish voiced velar fricative /ɣ/ and its palatal allophone [ʝ] vocalized to /j/ or /w/, reintroducing diphthongs to native Etrandish vocabulary (previously Early Old Etrandish only had /ɑi̯/, /oi̯/ and /ui̯/ from Wood Elven loanwords).

Front Back
Unrounded Rounded
Close Long yːi̯
Short yi̯ (ui̯)
Mid Long eːi̯ øːi̯ oːu̯
Short ei̯ øi̯ ou̯ (oi̯)
Back Long æːi̯ ɑːu̯
Short æi̯ ɑu̯ (ɑi̯)
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